Citation Guide

I. Introduction

What is in this Citation Guide? This Citation Guide is designed to help you with your citations, specifically with formatting footnotes and bibliographies according to the Chicago Manual of Style. It is a complement to the course outline and provides you with the information you need to succeed in this history course. You are responsible for understanding the material in this Citation Guide, which contains the following information:

  • An overview of why, when, and how to cite the work of others
  • An explanation of how to format footnotes and bibliographies according to the Chicago Manual of Style
  • A brief description of citation management tools

II. Citation Tips

1. Citation Management

Citing authors is guided by established standards, which are often discipline-specific. Knowing when to cite and which style to use is central to historical writing.

a. Citations

Why do I need to cite the work of others? Isaac Newton, in a 1675 letter to Robert Hooke, claimed that if “I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants.” All scholarly work should be original, but it is still built upon the achievements of others. It is necessary to give them credit for their work, which means providing proper footnotes throughout your work and a bibliography at the end of your essay. Let’s face it, nobody likes being ripped off. Here are a few other reasons why you need to provide citations:

  • To show an awareness of past research
  • To support your arguments
  • To demonstrate that you are a person of integrity
  • To provide access to original sources
  • To avoid plagiarism
  • To be generous and help others learn

When do I need to cite the work of others? It is not necessary to provide a citation at the end of every sentence or paragraph or for things that are common knowledge. You should, however, include citations in your work whenever you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. As a rule, you need to cite the work of others in the following cases:

  • Anything that is a direct quotation
  • The original arguments of other scholars
  • Processes you describe
  • Background material you provide on a topic
  • Numbers or data you obtained from other sources
  • Tables, graphs, or images you borrowed from other sources

How do I cite the work of others? There are two major ways in which you can cite the work of others in your own work, both of which require you to provide full bibliographic information.

  • Direct quotations. If you are directly quoting an author, you need to place their words in quotation marks (“. . .”) and follow them with a citation that provides exact page references.
  • Paraphrasing. Paraphrasing is when you use your own words to describe the arguments, ideas, or findings of someone else. Even though you are not directly quoting, you still need to provide a citation with exact page references.

Is it okay to cite sources from the internet? Good information is available on the internet today, but a lot of it is not scholarly material. In most cases, you would not cite anything from the internet in your assignments, which includes but is not limited to, blogs, Wikipedia articles, and popular websites. While scholarly sources can be found in a simple Google search, it is recommended that you turn to Google Scholar or other academic databases available through your university library.

How do I read a citation of a scholarly journal article? Scholarly journal articles are cited according to certain style guides and contain a set list of standard elements. All citations for scholarly journal articles contain the following information:

  • Name. Name of the author or authors of the article.
  • Title (article). Full title of the article, including the part following the semicolon.
  • Title (journal). Full title of the journal in which the article appears.
  • Year. The year in which the article was published.
  • Volume. The volume number of the journal in which the article was published.
  • Issue. The issue number of the volume of the journal in which the article was published.
  • Page(s). The series of page numbers from the journal in which the article is found. Several online scholarly journal articles do not have page numbers, which is why it is important to include a link to the URL of the web address.
Bibliographic entry of a scholarly journal.

How do I read a citation of a monograph? A monograph is cited according to certain style guides and contains a set list of standard elements. All citations for books contain the following information:

  • Name(s). Name of the author or authors of the book.
  • Title. Full title of the book, including the part following the semicolon.
  • Place of Publication. The place where the book was published.
  • Publishing House. The editorial house or company that published the book.
  • Year. The year in which the book was published.
Bibliographic entry of a monograph.

How do I read a citation of an edited volume? Edited volumes are cited according to certain style guides and contain a set list of standard elements. All citations for edited volumes contain the following information:

  • Name(s). Name of the author or authors of the individual chapter.
  • Title (chapter). Full title of the chapter, including the part following the semicolon.
  • Title (edited volume). Full title of the edited volume, including the part following the semicolon.
  • Name of editor(s). Name of the editor (ed.) or editors (eds.) of the edited volume.
  • Page(s). The series of page numbers from the edited volume in which the chapter is found.
  • Place of Publication. The place where the edited volume was published.
  • Publishing House. The editorial house or company that published the edited volume.
  • Year. The year in which the edited volume was published.
Bibliographic entry of an edited volume.
b. Citation Styles

Which citation style is common for history? There are many different citation styles, all of which are normally discipline-specific. In history, the standard citation style is the Chicago Manual of Style. There are several ways to access this style guide:

  • Hard copies. You can access a hard copy of The Chicago Manual of Style, 17thed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017) in your university library. Just search for it in the library search box.
  • Electronic copies. You can access an electronic copy of The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003) through your university library. Just search for it in the library search box.
  • Guides. Most university libraries offer style guides that have condensed versions of the most cited sources. Ask a librarian for further details.
  • Purdue Writing Lab. The Purdue Writing Lab offers examples of citations for both the Chicago Manual of Style and many of the other citation styles.

How do I cite a source in footnotes? Although in-text citations are common in other disciplines, in history footnotes are the norm. Footnotes provide the bibliographic information of your citation at the bottom of each page. You can generate footnotes – both the number in the body of your paper and the corresponding number and citation at the bottom of the page – by using your word processor (for an example see the Sample Paper in the Marking Guide). Whether you directly quote an author or summarize their work, you need to provide a footnote with exact page references. Here is how you need to cite books, book chapters, and scholarly journal articles in footnotes according to the Chicago Manual of Style:

  • Footnote (Book)
    • First name Last name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number(s).
    • Example: Henry Kamen, Early Modern European Society (London: Routledge, 2000), 45.
  • Footnote (Book Chapter)
    • First name Last name, “Title of Book Chapter,” in Title of Book, eds. First name Last name and First name Last name (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number(s).
    • Example: Linda Pollock, “Parent-Child Relations in Europe 1500–1800,” in Family Life in Early Modern Times, eds. Marzio Barbagli and David Kertzer (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001), 191.
  • Footnote (Scholarly Journal Article)
    • First name Last name, “Title of Article,” Title of Journal Volume number, Issue number (Year of publication): page number(s).
    • Example: Natalie Zemon Davis, “The Rites of Violence: Religious Riots in Sixteenth-Century France,” Past & Present 59, no. 1 (1973): 51.

How do I cite a source in a bibliography? Entries in a bibliography are slightly different than footnotes, so you cannot cut and paste from one to the other without making any changes. Here is how you need to cite books, book chapters, and scholarly journal articles in a bibliography according to the Chicago Manual of Style:

  • Bibliography (Book)
    • Last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.
    • Example: Example: Kamen, Henry. Early Modern European Society. London: Routledge, 2000.
  • Bibliography (Book Chapter)
    • Last name, First name. “Title of Book Chapter.” In Title of Book, edited by First name Last name and First name Last name, page numbers. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.
    • Example: Pollock, Linda. “Parent-Child Relations in Europe 1500–1800.” In Family Life in Early Modern Times, edited by Marzio Barbagli and David Kertzer, 191–220. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.
  • Bibliography (Scholarly Journal Article)
    • Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume number, Issue number (Year of publication): page numbers.
    • Example: Davis, Natalie Zemon. “The Rites of Violence: Religious Riots in Sixteenth-Century France.” Past & Present 59, no. 1 (1973): 51–91.

How do I format a bibliography? Unlike a reference list in other disciplines, a bibliography includes all the sources you used in your research (whether you directly cited them in your work or not). Here are a few things to keep in mind when formatting a bibliography for your assignments:

  • The title “Bibliography” should appear centered at the top of a separate page at the end of your paper.
  • Your bibliography should be organized by the surnames of authors and it should be in alphabetical order.
  • All sources in your bibliography should be single-spaced with one space between each entry.
  • Individual sources should begin on the left-hand side while all subsequent lines for the entry of that source should be indented.
  • All sources in your bibliography should end with a period.
c. Citation Management

What is citation management? A citation manager allows you to collect citations of scholarly journal articles, books, and other documents so that you have them all in one place. In other words, it is a tool to help you keep track of your sources.

What are the benefits of using citation management tools? When you only have one source to work with, it is easy to manage your citations. After a few years of study, however, that number will increase to the hundreds and then thousands if you move on to graduate studies. Citation management tools allow you to:

  • Keep track of your sources
  • Access and manage your sources online (bibliographic information/pdf files)
  • Import references from databases and websites
  • Automatically generate bibliographies in Microsoft Word
  • Share your collection of sources with others

What are some of the most common citation management tools? There are thousands of citation management tools available, but among the most used in universities are Mendeley, Zotero, and Endnote. Ask your librarian for more details to get a sense of which one is right for you.

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